Research on the application and development of amm

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Research on the application and development of ammunition packaging abroad (Part 2)

2.2.3 pallet containerization of ammunition packaging

pallet containerization packaging has the characteristics of large loading volume, convenient management and use, and saving transportation costs. The U.S. military regards the pallet and the packing box together as the unit packaging of ammunition. In the process of storage and transportation, the pallet operation is the smallest operation unit. Whether it is a small fuse or a large caliber ammunition, pallet containerization has been realized. The ammunition pallet of the U.S. Army has become the main way for factories to transport ammunition to ammunition supply stations, and the unit combined pallet is directly used as the ammunition and transportation storage container of the army. In order to shorten the ammunition taking time and improve the efficiency of the whole system, the U.S. military has improved the pallet container (such as equipped with 105 tank gun ammunition). The way of directly taking ammunition without dropping the pallet has become a new requirement of the U.S. military ammunition packaging design. The United States is the first country to palletize large packing wooden cases. Pica tinny Arsenal took the lead in manufacturing a large pallet wooden box that can hold 86 62mm rockets, instead of three ordinary wooden boxes with 45 bullets and the same volume; Then, a large wooden box that can hold 42 105mm shells was manufactured to replace 21 ordinary wooden boxes with the same number of bullets. The U.S. Army has developed a large pallet type silk bound wooden box, which is used as an outer packing box and can hold 38 rounds of 105mm490 anti tank training ammunition packed in asphalt paper drums. The total weight is 1103.4kg and the volume is 1.328m3. Compared with the old packaging, the packaging weight is reduced by 14.1%, the volume is reduced by 37.5%, and the packaging material is saved by 59%. This container can also be used for other tank bombs. It has a high mobility packaging. Another new invention of the 105mm tank bomb packaging of the US Army is to fix 30 or 35 metal packages on a metal tray to form a reusable meta package. One unit package can be used for one-time loading of a tank. When loading, just open the metal end cover and take out the shells, and the ammunition feeder can automatically feed the shells into the tank, which is very convenient to use. Due to the advantages of safe and rapid container transportation, high protective performance, simplified packaging and saved packaging costs, the number of containers used by the U.S. military has gradually increased and the scope of use has been expanding in recent years. Now, new containers that can be opened from the top and side are being developed and purchased. The U.S. military has also established an executive group for the transportation of ammunition and missiles in containers. The mission of this organization is to improve the padding and fastening methods, reduce the cost of containers, and strive to achieve 100% transportation of ammunition in containers. At present, 80% of the ammunition transported by the U.S. military to Europe is transported in ammunition containers. Practical experience shows that the structure with small size, which can be opened from the top and side and is convenient for loading and unloading is more practical, because it can overcome the disadvantage of inconvenient loading and unloading of ammunition containers

2.2.4 dry packaging is developing rapidly

in packaging, temperature and humidity are the main reasons for the corrosion, degradation, deterioration, damage and loss of use function of military products. All kinds of ammunition and equipment need a certain humidity environment during packaging and storage, and the limit range of relative humidity of ammunition is 45% - 55%. Based on the above data, the best relative humidity for ammunition and device packaging and storage is about 45%. Practice has proved that dry air packaging and sealing is an economical and effective method. The military of various countries has used this method to seal up large equipment such as tanks and artillery of the army to small weapons such as ammunition. It has become the best and reliable method for the army to store ammunition and equipment in the long-term or short-term, and its research and application still have the trend of further development

2.3 standardized management. The informatization of ammunition packaging has been realized

the relevant laws and regulations on packaging mode, packaging size, packaging materials, packaging technology, packaging equipment, packaging protection, packaging marks, etc. have been formulated; The software of ammunition and equipment packaging system is developed; The micro bar code computer information system has been developed to realize the modernization and informatization of ammunition and equipment packaging management

2.4 ammunition packaging testing technology has developed rapidly

foreign troops attach great importance to the effect and performance evaluation of ammunition packaging, and have formed a set of standardized requirements, which are mainly divided into three types of tests, namely, the performance test in the development stage of ammunition packaging (this kind of test is to evaluate the strength of newly developed ammunition packaging products and the protection ability of ammunition); Engineering qualification tests issued by the Army test and qualification command (such tests are mainly designated to assess the adaptability of ammunition and its packaging to special circulation environment, 15); The service identification test carried out by the army defense ammunition center and Society (this test is mainly used for the development and test of the results of palletization/transportation assembly of ammunition packaging). These three types of tests reflect the integrity and progressiveness of the US military's requirements for ammunition packaging testing

at present, some advanced ammunition packaging testing technologies in the world have been developed. For example, in order to ensure the safety of fuzes, primers and other special items, the virtual reality testing technology of ammunition component packaging has been studied. The test is simulated on the computer, so it does not involve the safety of actual ammunition components, and better solves the safety problems caused by the reasonable test of its packaging with entities. For another example, s.hauvespre and m.dokmeci of the United States have recently developed a micro package humidity monitoring and sensing system, which is embedded in the package through its humidity monitoring and sensing system composed of capacitance, 15 humidity sensors, hybrid coils, and remote sensing survey, With infinite remote control ".

2.5 carried out the research on the serialized and universal packaging technology of ammunition and equipment

compared with other weapons and equipment, the ammunition and equipment used in the army are easy to realize box packaging due to their small volume and light weight. The serialized and universal packaging of ammunition and equipment not only reduces the variety and quantity of equipment packaging, facilitates the management of equipment, but also facilitates the renewal and development of container loading operations and loading, unloading and handling machinery, So as to provide conditions for the rapid support of ammunition and equipment. Foreign troops have taken the lead in the serialization and generalization of ammunition packaging, focusing on solving two types of problems: 1) according to the 15 capabilities and characteristics of different ammunition, reasonably divide the protection grade and category of ammunition, so as to facilitate the generalization and serialization of the protection function design of ammunition packaging; 2) The structure and size of ammunition packaging box shall be reasonably divided according to the structure, shape, size and weight of different ammunition. On the basis of comprehensively studying these two kinds of problems, the technical standards for universal and serial Packaging of small ammunition equipment are established

3 development trend of foreign military ammunition packaging

3.1 pay attention to the development and application of new packaging technologies and materials "

in order to meet the needs of material protection under modern war conditions, foreign countries continue to develop and utilize new technologies and materials and apply them to ammunition packaging. In the coming period, foreign troops will conduct further research on intelligent packaging, anti explosion packaging, ultra-high function packaging, anti-static packaging, anti electromagnetic packaging, anti infrared packaging, anti radiation packaging, nanotechnology and nano exclusion methods: taking out damping needle materials

3.2 the comprehensive protection ability of packaging is further strengthened

the rapid development of modern detection and guidance technologies such as radar, infrared, laser, millimeter wave, etc. has made modern war more high-tech, and the battlefield environment is deteriorating day by day. It is difficult to achieve the purpose of effectively protecting internal materials only by packaging military materials. In the future, ammunition packaging will inevitably develop in the direction of multi-functional protection. With the progress of science and technology, various photochemical functional materials, stealth functional materials, conductive functional materials, moisture-proof and anti-static composite films, anti-static slow; With the successful development of new materials such as medium materials, ketaspire polyether ether ketone (PEEK) provides a technical guarantee for the realization of comprehensive protective packaging with excellent strength, excellent fatigue resistance and continuous use temperature up to 240 ℃. At the same time, with the deepening of the research on new ammunition and various related factors, the ammunition packaging design is more scientific, more reasonable and closer to reality

3.3 the container transportation system is developing in complete sets

the future development direction is in. Under the decision-making of the "whole process visualization" management system, it will develop to land, sea and air combined transportation, enhance the adaptability of logistics support, and establish a military container transportation force suitable for combat readiness and a centralized logistics supply system equipped with standard loading and unloading equipment and working procedures

3.4 advance research. To meet the requirements of the rapid response of the army, the ammunition packaging system has been deeply studied and tested to provide a scientific basis for modern large-scale operations

3.5 information technology will be widely used in ammunition packaging

with the rapid development of information technology, two-dimensional and even three-dimensional bar code, radio frequency technology and other information technology will be widely used in the field of ammunition packaging, so as to enhance the transparency of inner packaging and improve the rapid response ability

3.6 packaging research is more synchronized with ammunition development

the purpose of ammunition packaging research is not only to ensure the storage reliability, maintainability, and testability of ammunition when it is not working, but also to pay more attention to the visibility, reusability, maintainability, and testability of the packaging itself in each device discussed next

4 Conclusion

a careful study of the experience and lessons of ammunition packaging in foreign developed countries will help to explore the reform and development of China's ammunition packaging and promote the overall improvement of China's ammunition packaging technology

Xiao Bing, Huang Xiaoxia, Peng Tianxiu, 59th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry

source: Packaging Engineering

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